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Risoe National Laboratory

in an EU project on Sight Effectiveness Enhancement (SEE)


By: Hans H. K. Andersen, Forskningscenter Risø

Mobility is a need for most citizens. Safety of transportation is essential to the citizen's quality of life and to the development of industry. Every year, numerous accidents happen on the roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the recent dramatic aviation accidents in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. The fact that transport safety is thus compromised by inclement weather conditions is a concern to the public and to authorities and industry trying to optimise safety by improvements of infrastructure and technologies as well as regulations.

Infrared sensors are means that could help drivers or pilots to overpass human eyes limitation. Up to now these sensor technologies were not capable of good performances (readability) under all weather conditions. Furthermore it was impossible to demonstrate that these means would not lead to misleading information. It is the goal of the SEE project to address these two limitations for the both automotive and aeronautic domains.

On that purpose, the two main SEE objectives are:

  • To develop an IR system, based on lastest un-cooled detector technology, in order to obtain readable and reliable images;
  • To develop a validated simulation of the IR images in order to assess the human performances, based on the state of the art of human factors methodologies.



A head up display will be used to enhance sight effectiveness enhancement


The SEE project will develop two un-cooled IR cameras, design and validate a simulation of IR images for automotive and avionics applications, and evaluate the human performances under different weather conditions by means of the simulator. In addition, dissemination activities will be carried out towards European community. The two cameras will be of Long and Short Wavelengths Infrared Sensor types. The first one will give the "see through" capability (thermal sensor: microbolometer), the second one will allow a more familiar (human) image (extension of the wavelengths range to the visible). It is the strong commitment of the partners in the project that the merging of both sensors' information will lead to a readable and reliable image. The simulation will be based on similar works that were done for military applications. It is the intention of the project to develop a fully validated IR cameras simulation tool for both automative and avionics applications. This tool will allow a complete human factors evaluation of Enhanced Vision System based on the selected sensors. The developed simulation will be used by Risoe National Laboratory to evaluate the advantage of the IR image from a human factor point of view. Besides Risoe National Laboratory the partners in the project are: Thales Avionics SA (France), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (France), Galileo-Avionica S.p.A (Italy). Zeiss Optronik GmbH (Germany), Oktal Synthetic Environment (France), Elektroniksystem-und Logistik – GmbH (Germany), and Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft (Germany).




Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

By: Thomas Herdahl-Thorsing,

Maersk Training Centre

Maersk Training Centre has added another simulator to existing facilities. The acquisition is a Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator (LCHS). This new simulator complements other simulators present at MTC and provides the foundation for basic and specialised training within liquid cargo handling on a variety of vessel types.

The LCHS is supplied by Ship Analytics, a U.S. based company with many years of experience within the field of developing marine simulators.

The simulator is capable of simulating cargo operations on a variety of vessel and installations with types of both liquids and vapours and a mixture of liquid and vapours. Also associated cargo machinery and measuring equipment is simulated.

The simulator is based on computer software and works with a screen and mouse interface with the student. The simulator is working on a complex set of rules and mathematical calculations. This ensures a high degree of realism to the involved processes.

The model/vessel types operational are LNG (membrane, mark III), LPG (fully refrigerated, low pressure), Suez-max tanker and FPSO, but other models are also available, such as Chemical tanker or shore facility.

The first course has been conducted on a LNG model and the response from the participants was very positive. This course was a basic course with the purpose of introducing the participants to the cargo systems and the cargo operations taking place. The participants' were a mix of experienced and in-experienced LPG crew.

The benefits for the participants of using the simulator should be an introduction to the cargo systems on a particular vessel type, in this case an LNG vessel, an introduction to the cargo type and properties, development of cargo operation procedures and handling and prevention of critical situations.



Student station


The response from the participants were as follows:

"The simulator is a good thing especially for us junior officers with little or no experience on neither LPG nor LNG vessels. It was also good that you could see the properties of the cargo."

"Once you get used to the simulator is running in real-time you easily ignore the fact you are sitting at a computer."

"It was a good course as we gained insight into what it means to operate an LNG vessel with regard to the cargo operations."

Also present at the first course was an independent representative with extensive experience within the field of LNG transport. His conclusion to a 5-day training programme was,


"This is the most realistic LNG simulator I have ever seen. It is impressive how the simulation of all LNG processes and cargo operations are interactive and corresponding to reality. The operation of the simulator is easy and very user-friendly acting with mouse only. Simultaneous two screen display gives student enough overall control and view of operations."


The simulator is placed at the new MTC Guesthouse in Svendborg and comprises six student stations in one room and instructor/operator stations in a separate room also working as a Briefing room. The instructors have full visual and audio contact with the participants during operational scenarios. Inter-ship communications and ship-shore communications are also available.

The representative also stated,


"And finally without a very well organised and technically and ergonomically conceived training centre itself, the achieved results could not be possible. It was amazing watching the self-confidence of all students growing up during the last week. That was the best confirmation you are doing the right thing in a proper and efficient way. "



Instructor, communication and monitoring equipment


We hope that our customers and our participants will benefit from this new facility and we look forward to offer a variety of courses in the near future.

For more information please contact us on This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or visit our web-site

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Web Design by WebMaster/Danish Maritime Institute
Edited 21-04-06

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